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Basic information about the COVID-19 vaccines based on World Health Organization data (available here).

  • There are four main approaches to develop a vaccine against a virus, like SARS-CoV-2.
  • All methods rely on APCs (antigen presenting cells) to initiate the immune response. Once the APC identifies components of the virus, it triggers immune cells. These cells are then enabled to recognize and neutralize the virus.
  • Some vaccines also contain adjuvants to enhance the immune response, and RNA based vaccines are encapsulated into lipid nanoparticles to protect it and help it enter the body’s cells.


About the continuum for Biologics


Expert process development and manufacturing services for a diversity of biotherapeutics.


Flexible development and GMP manufacturing capacities for antibody-drug conjugates.


Integrated services for challenging API from formulation and development to GMP manufacturing.